Al-Ahsa Governorate is located in the southeast part (between latitude 17-26 and longitude 48-55) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, covering a vast area of land that reaches about 530000 km2, and representing 68% of the eastern region and 24% of the area of the Kingdom. It comprises the metropolis of Al-Ahsa (the cities of Al-Hofuf and Al-Mubarraz), four (4) major cities, and Twenty-two (22) villages. Al-Ahsa is (40) km away from the Arabian Gulf, (150) km away at the south of Dammam, and (320) km away at the east of Riyadh, Al-Ahsa is well-known for its distinctive geographical location as being on the eastern and southeastern borders of the Kingdom. Geographically, it has a very important location for being the closest region to the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries, and sharing borders with Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman, in addition to its coastal parts which connect the governorate to the Arabian Gulf through the coasts of Uqair and Salwa
Al-Ahsa is divided into three main geographical sections: the highlands, the deserts, and the plain, in addition, there are marshes and valleys; and its height ranges between 700m to Zero above the sea level, where the land is generally flat and sloping towards the east. The climate of Al-Ahsa is hot and dry in summer, cold and rainy in winter, and its weather is mostly clear. The temperature in Al-Ahsa reaches 48º in the summer; however, in winter, it decreases to reach around 10º. Autumn is the rainy season in Al-Ahsa, and this governorate is exposed to sandstorms from time to time.Al-Ahsa, with its originality and heritage, has a root in the depths of history, as it has witnessed civilizations that had emerged in 4000 BC, and it was inhabited by many different nations and races, as Al-Ahsa was among the 15th cities during the 1st millennium in terms of population account, and ranked the ninth among the cities with a population density of 110,000 people
Al-Ahsa has been playing a role in economic history due to the availability of the underground springs and soil fertility upon which agriculture is evolved. As a result, many agricultural activities were performed including the cultivation of various crops especially the dates of good quality and fame. Because of the presence of this agricultural wealth, its location alongside the places of luxury pearl diving, and its location among a group of civilization centers, Al-Ahsa had a perceptible role in consolidating commercial and cultural relations among the people of the Arabian Peninsula, the Mesopotamian Valley, India, and Asia, and it was center for exchanging goods and experiences between these regions.Al-Ahsa also played a prominent role in spreading the literary and cultural movement in the Arabian Peninsula and its neighboring regions, due to the presence of some poets and scholars. In the past five centuries, in particular, Al-Ahsa played a pivotal role in spreading knowledge and science, as charitable schools and educational institution spread in its main cities from which a large number of scholars had graduated and then actively and efficiently contributed in the field of authorship and teaching and occupied religious positions in Al-Ahsa in the other Arabian Gulf countries. Al-Ahsa continued its important role in this domain until the emergence of regular education institutions in the modern era
Al-Ahsa Governorate has the largest oil field in the world, with a breadth of 280 by 30 km, located in the east of the city of Al-Hofuf and the Al-Ahsa Oasis. It is famous for the palm trees, which cover huge areas of its lands exceeding three million palm trees in number, and it produces more than one hundred thousand tons of dates annually, equivalent to 10% of the Kingdom's total production. Al-Ahsa is a natural oasis and classified as the largest palm oasis in the world. It also has a seashore on the Arabian Gulf with an area of 133 kilometers. In the past, it was one of the kingdom's richest regions with groundwater, and springs (approximately 70 springs). In June 2018, Al-Ahsa Governorate joined the UNESCO World Heritage List, as a major settlement over the past 500 years, which included palm groves, water canals, springs, wells, archaeological areas, and a group of urban heritage within its historical settlements. In 2019, Al-Ahsa was chosen as the capital of Arab tourism, and in 2020 Al-Ahsa Oasis has entered the Guinness Book of Records, as the largest stand-alone oasis in the world. It is also a member of the UNESCO Network of Creative Cities in Handicrafts and Folk Art