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King Faisal University

Camel Research Center

 Research Publications

1.  AlAskar H., Alhajeri B. H., Almathen F., and Alhaddad H. (2020). Genetic diversity and population structure of dromedary camel-types. J. Hered. doi:10.1093/jhered/esaa016


2.  Hussen J., Shawaf T., Al-Mubarak A. I. A., Al Humam N. A., Almathen F., and Schuberth H.-J. (2020). Dromedary camel CD14high MHCIIhigh monocytes display inflammatory properties and are reduced in newborn camel calves. BMC Vet. Res. 16, 62. doi:10.1186/s12917-020-02285-8


3.  Elbir H, Almathen F, Elnahas A (2020) Low genetic diversity among Francisella-like endosymbionts within different genotypes of Hyalomma dromedarii ticks infesting camels in Saudi Arabia, Veterinary World, 13(7): 1462-1472.


4.  Hussen J., Shawaf T., Al-Mubarak A. I. A., Al Humam N. A., Almathen F., and Schuberth H. J. (2019). Leukocytes immunophenotype and phagocytosis activity in pregnant and nonpregnant dromedary she camels. Pak. Vet. J. 40, 239–243. doi:10.29261/pakvetj/2019.117


5.  Elbir H, Almathen F, Alhumam NA. A glimpse of the bacteriome of Hyalomma dromedarii ticks infesting camels reveals human Helicobacter pylori pathogen. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2019 Nov 30;13(11):1001-1012.


6.  Bahbahani H., Musa H. H., Wragg D., Shuiep E. S., Almathen F., and Hanotte O. (2019). Genome Diversity and Signatures of Selection for Production and Performance Traits in Dromedary Camels. Front. Genet. 10, 1–14. doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.00893


7.  Alhaddad H., Maraqa T., Alabdulghafour S., Alaskar H., Alaqeely R., Almathen F., and Alhajeri B. H. (2019). Quality and quantity of dromedary camel DNA sampled from whole-blood, saliva, and tail-hair (A Palsson, Ed.). PLoS One 14, e0211743. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211743


8.  El-Ghareeb W. R., Almathen F. S., Fayez M. M., and Alsultan R. A. (2019). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in camel meat: Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility. Slov. Vet. Res. 56, 249–256. doi:10.26873/SVR-764-2019


9.  Almathen F, Elbir H, Bahbahani H, Mwacharo J, Hanotte O. Polymorphisms in MC1R and ASIP Genes are Associated with Coat Color Variation in the Arabian Camel. J Hered. 2018 Aug 24;109(6):700-706. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esy024.


10.  Hemida M. G., Elmoslemany A., Al-Hizab F., Alnaeem A., Almathen F., Faye B., Chu D. K. W., Perera R. A. P. M., and Peiris M. (2017). Dromedary Camels and the Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 64, 344–353. doi:10.1111/tbed.12401.


11.  Holl H., Isaza R., Mohamoud Y., Ahmed A., Almathen F., Youcef C., Gaouar S., Antczak D. F., and Brooks S. (2017). A frameshift mutation in KIT is associated with white spotting in the Arabian camel. Genes (Basel). 8, 1–8. doi:10.3390/genes8030102.


12.  Hemida M. G., Alnaeem A., Chu D. K., Perera R. A., Chan S. M., Almathen F., Yau E., Ng B. C., Webby R. J., Poon L. L., and Peiris M. (2017). Longitudinal study of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camel herds in Saudi Arabia, 2014-2015. Emerg. Microbes Infect. 6, e56. doi:10.1038/emi.2017.4


13.  Khalafalla AI, Al Eknah MM, Abdelaziz M, Ghoneim IM. A study on some reproductive disorders in dromedary camel herds in Saudi Arabia with special references to uterine infections and abortion. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017 Jun;49(5):967-974.


14.  Al-Busadah KA, El-Bahr SM, Khalafalla AI. Serum biochemical profile and molecular detection of pathogens in semen of infertile male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 May;180:58-65.


15.  Khalafalla AI, Ramadan RO, Rector A, Barakat S. Investigation on papillomavirus infection in dromedary camels in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Open Vet J. 2017;7(2):174-179. doi: 10.4314/ovj.v7i2.16.


16.  Adamczyk B., Albrecht S., Stöckmann H., Ghoneim I. M., Al-Eknah M., Al-Busadah K. A. S., Karlsson N. G., Carrington S. D., and Rudd P. M. (2016). Pregnancy-Associated Changes of IgG and Serum N-Glycosylation in Camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Proteome Res. 15, 3255–3265. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00439



17.  Almubarak, A. I., Ionita, J. C., Homeida, A. M., & Ramadan, O. R. (2016). Evaluation of a continuous rate infusion of propofol-ketamine for total intravenous anaesthesia in one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) after xylazine premedication: a clinical case series. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 23(1), 103-107.


18.  Khalafalla AI, El-Sabagh E, Al-Busada K, Al-Mubarak A, Ali Y(2015).  Phylogenetic analysis of eight Sudanese camel contagious ecthyma viruses based on B2L gene sequence. Virology Journal, 12: 124. doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0348-7.


19.  Khalafalla AI, Al-Busada KA, El-Sabagh IM (2015). Multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary Camels. Virol J. 7;12:102. doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0329-


20.  Khalafalla AI, Xiaoyan Lu, Abdullah I.A. Al-Mubarak, Abdul Hafeed S. Dalab, Khalid A.S. Al-Busadah, and Dean D. Erdman (2015). MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract and Lungs of Dromedary Camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21(7):1153-8. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150070. 


21.  A.Y. Al-Taher, M.K. Zabady, A.I. Almubarak, M. Ismail and R.O. Ramadan, 2014. Clinical Use of Tramadol and Xylazine in Dromedary Camel Undergoing Soft Tissue Surgeries. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 13: 206-208.


22.  Ghoneim, I.M., Waheed, M.M., Adam, Moh ammed and Al-Eknah, M.M (2015). Relationship between the size of the dominant follicle, vaginal electrical resistance, serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone and sexual receptivity during the follicular phase of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anim. Reprod. Scie., 154, 63-67. 


23. Al-Shami, Salah Abdulaziz, El- Habashi, Nagwan,. Mandour, Mohamed  A.,Hussein, Yehia Ahmed and Al-Eknah, Marzook Mohamed (2014). The potential effect of camel milk and urine against CCL4 - induced lesions in male rats. Accepted for final publication in Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 13: 20,1160-1166.


24.  Ghoneim, I.M., Waheed, M.M., Fouda, T.A, Al-Eknah, M.M., Al-Mugalli, A.M., Al-Deeb, W.M. and Eljalii, I.M.  (2014). Some biochemical and haematological aspects associated with pyometra and endometritis in female camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 21: 99-102.



25.  Ghoneim, I.M., Waheed, M.M., Al-hofofi,  A.N., Fayez, M.M., Al-Eknah, M.M., Al-Busadah, K.A. and Al-humam, N.A. (2014). Evaluation of the microbial quality of fresh ejaculates of camel (Camelus dromedarius) semen. Ani. Reprod. Animal Reproduction Science 149, 218–223 .


26.  Al-Sultan, Abdulrahman, Al-Eknah, Marzook, Al-dougym, Abdullah and Aboulmagd, Elsayed (2014). Detection of Klebsiella pneudomonas aeruginosa and ESBL Producing Escherichia coli Association with Ovarian Hydrobursitis Syndrome in Female Camels (Camelus dromedaries). Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advanceses 9, 499-505. 


27.  Albrecht S, Lane JA, Mariño K, Al Busadah KA, Carrington SD, Hickey RM, Rudd PM (2014) .A comparative study of free oligosaccharides in the milk of domestic animals. Br J Nutr. 111(7):1313-28. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513003772.


28.  Ghoneim, I.M., Waheed, M.M., El-Bahr, S.M., A.K.Al-haider and Al-Eknah, M.M. Comparison of some biochemical and hormonal constituents of oversized follicles and preovulatory follicles in camels (Camelus dromedarius).Theriogenology (2013), 79:  647-652.


29.  Ghoneim I.M., Waheed M.M., Hamouda M.A. Al-Eknah M.M. and AL-Fehaed H.F. Endometrial biopsy technique and histopathological findings of endometritis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) J. Camel Practice and Research (2013), 20:  69-74.


30.  Hagag, U., Brehm, W., Ramadan, R. O., Al Mubarak, A., El Nahas, A. and Gerlach, K. (2013), Computed Tomography and Cross-sectional Anatomy of the Normal Dromedary Camel Tarsus (One Humped Camel). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 42: 266–274. 


31.  Hagag, U., Brehm, W., Ramadan, R. O., Al Mubarak, A., El Nahas, A. and Gerlach, K. (2013), Normal Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Appearance of the Adult Dromedary Camel Tarsus (One Humped Camel). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 42: 344–354.


32.  Almubarak A.I. (2013). Antinociceptive, sedative, and cardiopulmonary effects of intravenous lidocaine in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). Vol. 20, Issue: 1 Page: 29. Print ISSN : 0971-6777. Online ISSN : 2277-8934.


33.  Al-Mubarak AI (2013). Effects of tramadol on antinociception, sedative and some biochemical variables in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research 20(1):19-22.


34.  Al-Mubarak AI (2013). Sedative, analgesic and biochemical effects of butorphanol in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research 20(1):23-27.


35.  Alfattah M.A., Al-Mubarak, A.I., Althnaian, T.A., Albokhadaim, I.F., Al-Haide, A.K., and Homeida A.M. Effect of Feeding High Urea Diets on Metabolites, Hormones and Ionic Composition of Follicular Fluid in Camels. Research Journal of Pharmacology 2012 6 (1) 1-3 DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2012.1.3


36.  Almubarak AI. Clinical evaluation of ketamine with romifidine and diazepam, for total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in dromedary camel. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2012;19(2):197-200.


37.  Almubarak, A. I. "Comparison of ketamine-butorophanol and ketamine–Diazepam-butorophanol for total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in dromedary camels-A clinical study." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 19, no. 2 (2012): 201-205.


38.  A.I. Almubarak , 2012. Evaluation of Intravenous Administration of Doxapram Prior to Xylazine Sedation in Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 11: 4455-4459.


39.  A.I. Almubarak , 2012. Efficacy of Intravenous Administration of Ephedrine for Prevention of Xylazine-Induced Hypotension in Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 11: 4460-4464.


40.  Ghoneim, I.M., Waheed, M.M., Al-Eknah, M.M. and El-Bahr, S.M. Immunization against GnRH in the male camel (Camelus dromedarius): effects on sexual behavior, testicular volume, semen characteristics and serum testosterone concentrations. Theriogenology (2012), 78:  1102-1109  


41.  Homeida, A.M., Al-Eknah, M.M., Alfattah, M.A., Al-Khalifa, K.A., Bursais, K.A. and Al-Busadah, K.A. (2012). Occurance of Organochlorine Compounds in follicular Fluid and Their Effect on Steroid Hormones in Follicles of Camels. J. Environ. Sci. Technolo.,5,  137-141. 


42.  Hussein, M.F., Aljumaah, R.S., Alshaikh, M.A. et al. Coagulation parameters of captive mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella Pallas, 1766; Bovidae: Antilopinae) and Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana Cuvier, 1825; Bovidae: Caprinae). Comp Clin Pathol 21, 527–531 (2012).


43.  Ramadan R.O, Hagag U., Ionita J.C. Elnahas A., Almubarak A.I., 2012. Carotid lateralisation for repetitive arterial blood sampling in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research.19: 165-168.



44.  Waheed, M.M., Al-Eknah, M.M. and El-Bahr, S.M. (2011). Some Biochemical Characteristics and Preservation of Epididymal Camel Spermatozoa (Camelus dromedaries). Theriogenology, 76, 1126-1133. 


45.  Al-Bowait M. E., Albokhadaim I. F., and Homeida A. M. (2010). Immunostimulant effects of binweed (Convolvulus arvensis) extract in rabbits. Research Journal of Pharmacology 4, 51–54. doi:10.3923/rjpharm.2010.51.54


46.  Al-Dughaym AM, Homeida AM. Effect of endotoxin administration in pregnant camels. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2010;17(2):101‐103. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.02.002


47.  Al-Nazawi, M. H.; Homeida, A. M. Comparative pharmacokinetics of Enrofloxacin and Marbofloxacin after a single intramuscular administration in camel. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 2010 Vol.17 No.1 pp.63-65.


48.  Al-Swailem AM, Shehata MM, Abu-Duhier FM, Al-Yamani EJ, Al-Busadah KA, Al-Arawi MS, et al. (2010) Sequencing, Analysis, and Annotation of Expressed Sequence Tags for Camelus dromedarius. PLoS ONE 5(5): e10720. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010720.


49.  Homeida A.M.,Al-Eknah M.M., Althnaian T.A., Al- Haider A.K., Albokhadaim I F., and Al-mubarakA.I (2010). Effects of Reproductive Status, Ovariectomy and Sex Steroid administration on Estogen and Progesterone Receptors in the Uterus of Camel. Research Journal of Pharmacology 4,5-8.


50.  Hussein, M.F., Al-jumaah, R.S., Homeida, A. et al. Hemostatic profile, platelets, and blood constituents of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Comp Clin Pathol 19, 585–591 (2010).


51.  Hussein MF, Aljumaah RS, Homeida AM, Alhaidary AA, Alshaikh MA, Gar Elnabi A, Mohammed OB, Omer SA, Macasero WV. Coagulation profile and platelet parameters of the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica): comparison with humans and camels. J Wildl Dis. 2010 Oct;46(4):1165-71.


52.  Ghoneim, I.M., Al-Eknah,M.M., Waheed, A.K., Al-Haider A.K., Homeida, A.M (2010). Effect of some extenders and enzymes on semen viscosity and sperm viability in dromedary camel. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 17,85-89.


53.  Homeida A.M. and AL-Mubarak A.I. (2009). Effect of different progesterone formulations on the plasma progesterone concentrations in she- camel . Res.J. Pharmacology 3, 19-21.


54.  Abdulaziz M. Al-Swailem, Maher M. Shehata, Khalid A. Al-Busadah, Maged H. Fallatah and Ejaz Askari. Evaluation of the genetic variability of microsatellite markers in Saudi Arabian camels. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 7(2) · April 2009


55.  Waheed, M.M., Al-Eknah, M.M., Hamouda, M.A. and Al-Dughaym. A.M. (2009). Uterine Histopathological findings of infertile female camels (Camelus dromedaries). Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 16, 171-177.


56.  Al-Nazawi M.H. and Homieda A.M. (2008). Pharmacokinetic studies of kanamycin in camels. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences) Vol.10 No.2, P. 105-113.


57.  Ismail, S.T., Al-Eknah, M.M. and Al-Busadah, K.A. (2008). Hormonal Changes During Busserlin GnRH Priming Regimen for Superovulation in the Camel (Camelus dromedarius). Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences), 9, 103-117.


58.  Al-Dughaym A.M. and Homeida A.M. (2008). Some immuno-supressive trends: Effects of Endotoxin on Camels (Camelus dromedarius). Saudi J. of Biological Sci. 15, 21-23.I


59.  Al-Mubarak AI, Abdin-Bey M and Ramadan RO (2008). A retrospective clinical evaluation of xylazine-ketamine total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in dromedary camels. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 15(2):201-203.


60.  Ismail, S.T., Al-Eknah, M. and Hemeida, N (2007). Superovulation Trials for Embryo Transfer in the Camel (Camelus dromedaries).. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences), 8, 51-60.


61.  Al-Busadah KA, Homeida AM. Pharmacokinetics of progesterone in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarim). Res Vet Sci. 2004;77(3):245‐247. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2004.03.005


62.  Hegazy, A., El-Dughaym, A., Al-Eknah, M, Housawi, F. and Hatem, M. (2004). Studies on Mastitis in Female Camels with Special Reference to Brucellosis. Journal of Camel Science, 1, 96-102.


63.  Hegazy, A., Ali, A., Al-Eknah, M. and Ismail, S. (2004). Studies on Pituitary-Ovarian Axis in the Female Camel with Special Reference to Cystic and Inactive Ovaries. Journal of Camel Science, 1, 16-24.


64.  Al-Eknah, M.M. and Ali, A.M. (2001). Infundibular cysts jeopardize reproduction in the camel (Camelus dromedaries). Emi. J. Agric. Sci., 13, 52-56.


65.  Al-Eknah, M.M., Homeida, A.M., Ramadan, R.O., Al-Modhi, F.A. and Al-Busadah, K.A. (2001). Pregnancy dependence on ovarian progesterone in the camel (Camelus dromedaries). Emi. J. Agric. Sci., 13, 27-32.


66.  Al-Eknah, M., Hemeida, N. and Al-Haider, A. (2001). A new approach to collection of semen by artificial vagina from the dromedary camel. Journal of Camel Practice and Research. 2, 127-130.


67.  Al-Eknah, M.M. (2001). Camel Reproduction. In: Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction andObstetrics. Eds. Noakes, D.E., Parkinson and England, G. Harcourt Health Science, UK.


68.  Hegazy, A, Al-Eknah, M., Kotob, M., Hemeida, N. and Serur, B. (2001). Pathological and microbiological studies on the reproductive tract of the female dromedary camel. J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Ass. 61, 9-25.


69.  Al-Eknah, M.M. (2000). Reproduction in Old World camels. Animal Reproduction Science, 60-61: 583-592.


70.  Gaili, E.S.E. , Al-Eknah, M.M. and Sadek, M.H.  (2000). Comparative milking performance of three types of Saudi camels (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of camel Practice and Research, 7: 73-76.


71.  Al-Eknah MM, Homeida AM, Dafalla EA, Galil AK, al-Tahir AY. Uterine activity after induction of hypocalcaemia in the ovariectomized camel (Camelus dromedarius). Vet Res Commun. 1997;21(1):45‐50. doi:10.1023/b:verc.0000009700.44186.99


72.  Homeida AM, al-Eknah MM, Dafalla EA, Galil AK, al-Taher AY. Uterine activity after ovariectomy in the camel (Camelus dromedarius): effect of exogenous administration of oestrogen and progesterone. Res Vet Sci. 1993;55(3):382‐384. doi:10.1016/0034-5288(93)90113-t


73.  Ali AM, Abdo MS, Prentis PF. Ultrastructure of camel basophilic granulocytes with special reference to its functions. Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch. 1990;104(5):762‐768. PMID: 2773555


74.  Abdo MS, Ali AM, Prentis PF. Fine structure of camel erythrocytes in relation to its functions. Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch. 1990;104(3):440‐448. PMID: 2238793


75.  Ali AM, el-Sanousi SM, al-Eknah MA, et al. Studies on the infundibular cysts of the uterine tube in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1992;45(3-4):243‐253. PMID: 1339989